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Bioplastic bags from cassava and shrimp waste on Plastic Bag Free Day

In the past years, we have discussed many sources of bioplastic. From cheese waste to pine needles, and from milk to cow dung, all of these materials are a viable source to make a more sustainable world. In honour of Plastic Bag Free Day, today we discuss two sources to make plastic bags from biodegradable material: made from cassava starch that dissolve in water, and bioplastic bags made from shrimp waste.

Cassava plastic bags
Cassava is a cheap and common root vegetable across Indonesia, home of the inventor of the plastic, Kevin Kumala. The bioplastic contains cassava starch, vegetable oil, and organic resins.

The material is biodegradable and compostable, breaking down over a period of months on land or at sea. However, it dissolves instantly in hot water. The inventor claims it leaves no trace of toxic residue, which he demonstrates by drinking the dissolved plastic.

The company Kumala founded in 2014, Avani Eco, produces all kinds of disposable and eco-friendly products, from coffee cups to ponchos. Not everything is made from cassava. The poncho, for example, is made from corn, soy, and sunflower seeds.

While bioplastics should of course be supported and applauded, as petroleum based plastic products are slowly destroying our oceans, using edible resources may not be the most viable option. Unless we all start drinking our cassava plastic bags, we should keep looking for alternative resources to make bioplastics.

Shrimp waste plastic bags
In collaboration with the Nile University in Egypt, bioengineers at the University of Nottingham are studying how to use shrimp shells, rather than food crops, to make biodegradable shopping bags, as well as new food packaging material to extent product shelf life.

Shrimp shells are part of the waste problem in Egypt. Using a degradable biopolymer for bioplastic bags leads to lower carbon emissions and a reduction in food and packaging waste.

The material is made from chitosan, an artificial polymer made from the organic compound chitin, which is extracted from crustacean shells. Chitosan is biodegradable polymer that is antimicrobial, antibacterial, and biocompatible. In the project, the substance is used to create a nanocomposite material that is biodegradable, affordable, and suitable for shopping bags and food packaging.

A second strand of the project aims to develop an active polymer film that absorbs oxygen, to enhance the shelf life of food.

Photos: Avani Eco (in part via CNN) / Pixabay


  1. Russell Pereira says:

    Wow great concept. Would like to know if you can send this over to India. Will do great here as the plastic bag concept has been banned. No plastic items will now be made.

  2. Sigrid says:

    Hi Russell

    As Materia doesn’t sell the products, it would be best to contact the company or university directly. You can contact Avani here: The contact details for the University of Nottingham can be found here:

    Good luck with your project!

    – Team Materia

  3. Abhi Lash says:

    I was following last 3 months nd am staying in hill station at India .here the all plastic bags are banned kindly please let me know is it possible to take and spread all over the india?

  4. Sigrid says:

    Hi Abhi,

    As Materia doesn’t sell any products, it would be best to contact the company directly. You can contact Avani Eco here:

    Good luck with your project!

    – Team Materia

  5. Yava Ndala says:

    Where to find the raw material?
    Which types of machineries to be used?

  6. Sigrid says:

    Hi Yava,

    For an answer to your questions, it would be best to contact the manufacturer directly, by clicking on the link in the article.

    On behalf of Team MaterialDistrict,

  7. Farouk Abdulsalam says:

    It’s a very good and a sustainable way forward in packaging, please I need more info on using cassava plastic for making disposable bags and packages. Thanks

  8. Sigrid says:

    Hi Farouk,

    For more information about the material. follow the link in the article to contact the manufacturer directly.

    Good luck with your project!

    On behalf of Team MaterialDistrict,

  9. Shareeff shareeff says:

    This is good. Iam working with an NGO and we educate people on different environmental issue. Present i am working on No plastic project.
    If you allow me to publish this article in our No plastic special edition. It will be great. waiting for your response.

  10. Sigrid says:

    Hi Shareeff,

    Thank you for your interest! If you could email us at, we can discuss things further.

    On behalf of Team MaterialDistrict,